TRANSPORTATION

Article curated by Ibrahim Sunusi Bala Dip.(Aviation Management), Cert.(Contemporary Issues), Associate Degree.Islamic Economy Banking and Finance)

In this blog we are going to on our search light on the following areas.

1.Meaning of concept transportation.

2.History of transportation.

3.Means of transportation.

Let’s find out what are the varying degrees of the meaning of transportation are,and what’s the deepness of the history of transportation,and at varying length discussing the means or mode of transportation.

MEANING OF TRANSPORTATION

There are many definition of transportation as there are many means of transportation nowadays, going by the globalization drive of many country management. Transportation is the bedrock of development as people, goods,and services move from one place to the other for consumption and uses.

Transportation according to oyesiku(2002) is a means by which, a man,nation,region and the world over in it entirety will be severely limited without it,in terms of development. Hightlighting the place of transportation and property in physical and economic development of towns and cities all over the world.

Transportation is defined thus as the movement of people and materials from one point to the other for one reason or the other.

Therefore, it is conceivable if transportation is said to be an essential part of human activity and in many ways form the basis,starting point or foundation of all socio economic development processes.

Taming the ducks in the duck fill feathers, we look at four basic categories of transportation in definitive terms.

-Railway transportation.

-Road transportation.

.-Water transportation, and.

-Air transportation.

Transportation sector have many viable chances in terms of self employment, gender fens unwittingly as long as you have the zeal to be engage in holistic seeking.Man the builder of his world is the cricketer that move his ego forward or Othello otherwise.

Transportation in my view,doesn’t just started with the man upstairs invention alone.

Pomp homo stories,of sapiens and erectus dialect, in biology of Charles Darwin’s theory.

Man in bending and man in erect, upright

Thus,the evolution continues

Levers movement, behind movement, motorcycles, bikes and workloads gauges are all a bids achieved transportation goals.

HISTORY OF TRANSPORTATION

The first evolution,more of changes in transport system surpassed around 1780,with the volte fax of James Watt steam engines, encoring to movement of vehicles later.Taking the railway advantage, of using the rails to move vehicles, and locomotive hauled.In 1819,George Stephen built the famous locomotive.

1825,though saw the opening of public railway in England.

The first Italian railway line was built in the kingdom of the two sicilles between Naples and portici,joined together in a length of 8 km.And it followed henceforth,for almost two century,seeing the railway as the most useful and important mode/means of transporting internal mobility of goods and people in the Western world, giving birth to economic and social development.

Only in the last forty years, that mobility of goods by road has gradually taken over the rail, doubling it share in facts from 1970 to date.Meanwhile/in the mean time,the transport volumes have more doubled.

Worthy of notice here is,it is not only with Daimler’s,Ford’s et al coming that transportation come to be,or with Rudolf’s,Wright flyeror Konstantin

Trucks has it history as of cars,dating back in 1876 with the coming on stage of the four stroke internal combustion  engines by Nikolaus August Otto.Ferrying us to vehicles in the configuration that are very much prevalent today after more than a century, by personae such as Karl Benz,Gottlieb Daimler, and Rudolf Diesel.

Since off,technology rented the immortalities,in great strides and modern trucks became equipped with clear engines, and provide a great active and passive safety.

Though vehicles remained driven by engines that use fuels guts and effronteries.Sourced from oil refining,together with CO2 production guilt couped harmful emissions of gases,polluting the environment and contributing to global warming. Especially going back to twenty years, automotive industry has improve enormous/progressively in the reductions of emissions of harmful  gases,CO2 production and enchanted in active and passive safety.

A kudos in the big push toward cleaner engines drive and toward the production of electric motors,hybrids, or use of alternative fuels such as natural gas,biofuels and hydrogen.Surpassing as big memoirs in the automotive world stage.As excellent moving away from the primitive beast of burden hers to saunters daunts.

Knowing the history of transportation is not complete, without knowing the attributes of transportation as a whole.Those items that add efficacy to transport system.Below are the influences in brief.

ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE

The development of a road as a transport system is more of a handicraft attribute of Roman civilization, though the origin of road infrastructure, for the purpose of traffic of land vehicles came with the invention of the wheel.The incas,with weak knowledge of the wheel or how to handle horses.And there’s a doubt. What will it have being,’The knowledge’,if at all there’s to the Incas, among many roads built in the pre Columbia south America, the best road system, the largest and of the time most advanced standard (Nearly 40,000 km) roads.Could you imagine,were just a upshot of little bit more than a meter wide and only traveled on foot,except for occasions accompanied by herds of animals that are believed to be usually Hama’s.

Strabone intoned:”Romans put care into three things above all,that the Greeks neglected i.e opening roads ,building aqueducts and disposition of sewer into the ground “.For the quest in want of military, political and commercial strength; the Romans began the construction of long straight roads,primarily for the essential growth of their empire.

Without diving deep into the shallow hollow,the history of transportation is largely one of technological innovations, that’s to say advances in technology paved the way of chances for people to travel farther, folklore more territories tales and explore given people the amplification to broaden their horizon of influence over larger areas.

Even in ancient hegemony,’He gem’,new tools such as foot covering,skis,and snowshoes lengthened the distances that could be traveled. As new inventions and discoveries were used to transport problems, the length of time to travel shorten as well as the ability to move more larger workforce loads increased.Innovation continues as transport researchers and transporters day-in day-out are working in sleepless slumber to find  new ways to reduce costs and increase transport efficiency.

More impetus to international trade as the driving motivator behind advancement in global transportation. Having a single global world economy with a worldwide division of labour and multinational trade from 1500 onward. The sale and transportation of Textile, silver and gold, spices, slaves and luxury goods throughout Afro-Eurasia and later the New world would see an evolution in overland and sea trade routes and travel. If wikipedia is not mistaken.

MODE/TYPES OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

LAND TRANSPORTATION

Under the land transportation credit desecration ratio,we have transportation by road and transportation by rail,which evolved overtime.

ROAD TRANSPORTATION

As briefly discussed earlier, the first earth tracks were created by human carrying good’s and often followed trails. Tracks could be naturally created at point of high traffic density. As animals were domesticated,horses,oxen and with the development of motor transport, 1886 in Germany and the U.S 1908,came with the production of Ford’s first Model T.The need for  hard-topped roads to reduce washaways,bogging and the dust on both urban and  rural roads increased thereof,wereof earlier using cobblestones and wooden paving in larger western cities and in the early 20th century tar-bound macadam (tarmacs) and concrete paving. The world first tarmac road is Nottingham’s Radcliffe, that came in existence in 1902.

RAILWAY TRANSPORTATION

The history of rail transportation dates back nearly 500 years ago and includes  systems and man or horsepower and rail of wood(or occasionally stone).Usually and most often for moving of coal from the mine to a river,and to continue by boat with a flanged wheel running on a rail.

Cast iron plates as rails surface in the year 1760s,then plateways,outfashion the flange as part of the rail. Rolled wrought iron rails being the almighty toast,makes all the above obsolete.

Oyster mouth in 1807 legged the first passenger carrying public railway. Opened and manned by the Swansea and Mumbles. Using horse-drawn carriages on existing tramlines. And the trending of thee thereof, suffice to opines outlays the dream of Richard Trevithick off down 1802,when he designed and built the first (unnamed) steam locomotive to run on smooth rails.A Cornish engineer who showed off his railway invention savvy in the Welsh mining town of Merthyr Tydfil.

Failures and success didn’t deterred Trevithick along the road route to actual breakthrough or Eldorado’s for the first railway engine. Nay did he succumbed to rivalry pressure, but even went ahead to successfully demonstrate the,”Puffing Devil” steamed power locomotive in 1802.

“Wait, lips before you look, seems the wreathing slogan of our being in competitive sphere of the world stage”.

Leveraged or capitalised on by Trevithick’s rivals to stop the production of the high-pressure steams engines. Where four men happened to be killed by an explosion of Trevithick’s engine in Greenwich in 1803,occurrence that almost sealed the fate of locomotive travel.

However, in spite of the setback. Trevithick’s, “Penydarren Locomotive”, grace’s it place in history by becoming the first full scale working railway steam locomotive, by completing a journey of carrying a transport of ten tonnes of iron,nearly ten miles away from Penydarren ironworks to Abercynon village, on a wager of 500 guineas by Samuel Homfray challenging Richard Crawshay on Trevithick’s locomotive steam engine abilities to carry out the task.

A fit achieved in 4 hours, that ultimately prove the locomotives sturdiness and reliability

Railway transportation can be defined as the movement of goods and passengers on rail from one place to another. Now that we have seen what railway transportation stand in history, our discuss will go on to modern and diesel categories of locomotive engines class,to see what they also look like.

MODERN LOCOMOTIVES

1820s and 1830 are unforgetful dates in the history of modernity of railway transport. 1820s England saw the appearance of modern rail transport, mostly for hauling minerals.A streak that distinguished it from the 1830 England.Where in Liverpool and Manchester railway, which opened in 1830,stand as the first modern railroads.

A public carriage of both passengers and freight as the count’s goes on to 1870 when the Britain records about 13,500 miles(21,700km) of railroad.

Sending spines to records of research on how to improve the railway transportation system.

Seeing to a many technicians, engineers, and so many scholarly researches in yard,in studies and in the garages.

Few years later,1879 Germany became booming with electric locomotive development. And the story goes from one breakthrough to another in succession. In the later 19th century Werner Von Siemens came up with demonstration of the first experimental electric passenger train that works on the concept of insulated third rail to supply electricity, transporting at most 90,000 people…Despite the gargantuan achievement Siemens didn’t give in to the yelling fame ,in relentlessly moved on to built the word’s first electric tramline in the Berlin suburb of lithterfelde in the year 1881.Thus like a sparkling star,the trends went high wire, gathering momentum. And thus many such initiatives were set up in Brington and Vienna respectively in 1883.

On creating this content, we are going to liquidate our pen on one of old locomotive engine, which is diesel locomotives.

DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES

“Hold your breath abit,inhale and sneezes into the winds”.

…”Do not believe, act and move forward “.

The history of rail transportation is of the history of rapid transit and monorail, undisputedly.Dr.Rudolf Diesel, worked at a swiss engineering firm sulzer, from where he thinks of a new type of railway locomotives, with a new internal combustion method which sooner than expected sparked speculation on whether this typically of engine will actually work.The work assignment that keep him in studies from late 19th century to the early 20th century, putting on diesels on track and trying to improve the power to weight ratio.

Success keep ushering in,in as much as in 1914,there were about 20,000miles(32,000km)of track run by 120 competing companies. This could be said to be the system greatest extent or high. The British government combined all these companies into four main groups in 1923 as an economy measure. The British railways,by the name British rail, former national railways system of Great Britain, created by the Transport Act of 1947,which inaugurated public ownership of the railways.’Single big kudos act’.

Now,our next content creation is the next mode of transportation, which is water transportation.

WATER TRANSPORTATION

In the stone ages,primitive boats were developed to permit navigation of rivers and for fishing in rivers and off the coast.

Industrial revolution came with steam boats and later diesel powered ships, which eventually developed see to the eventual development of submarines mainly for military purposes and peoples general benefits.

Argument abound, earlier that suitable for a significant sea crossing is pertinent for people to reach Australia, over 40,000-45,000 years ago.This is an estimation. But With the synchronization of civilization, vessels evolved for expansion and generally grew in size for trade and war..Gotten from(https://PVS.kcc.Hawaii.edu/like/kalai_waa/Kane_search_voyage_canoe.html.That, in Mediterranean, galleys were developed about 3000 BC.Polynesian double hulled sailing vessels with advanced rigging were used between 1,300 BC and 900 BC,enthusing by the progeny of Polynesian of the lapita culture to expand 6,000 km across open ocean from the Bismarck archipelago east to Micronesia, and at high most to Hawaii.

Galleys,became obsolete by ocean going sailing ships, like the such of.

-The Arabic caravel 13th century.

-The Chinese treasure ship early 15th century.

-The Mediterranean man of war late 15th century.

“Probing the prices of sales and consumption to be the whereabouts of innovation and invention.”

“The goose swims in it berries while at the berths, the gander in grandeurs revolutionized”.

As such,specialized craft were developed for river and canal transport.

In mesopotamia menopause around C 4000 BC,canals were developed, so also the Indus valley civilization in Pakistan and North India,(from C.2600 BC).Being the first canal irrigation system in the world.

Sui dynasty’s 1,794 km(1,115 Miles), the greatest accomplishment of China’s canal system.The 7th century Grand canal between Hangzhou and Beijing,used for irrigation, food control, taxation, commercial and military transport and colonization of new lands from the house dynasty, until the defunct of imperial era,was the,or an essential aspect of its civilization. Canals were also developed in middle age Europe in Venice and and Netherland.Thence throughout centuries in the past,water supplied the cheapest and a times, the only means of transporting bulk materials on a large scale and also,it was the most secure way to ensure transport over long distance trade.Most beefing in interest to take note of here is,water was not the only linked to the shores of one another seafaring people, along their voyage, nay traders contributed to these trade routes as well.

PORTS/LAND

Maritime traders, most often congregated in ports,which is considered to be the point in which land and sea met,linking the hinterland to the wider world. Hey,some ports in terms, were.

-Favoured than others.

-Blessed with a good location than others.

-Having sufficient warehouse facilities than others.

-Having accessible harbours than others.

-Intones with adequate supplies of food and water,which became “entrepots “.

Essentially the super centers for trade,but rarely thought off as the final destination of.Though but rather carbonised as central meeting point in what was an ever changing economic and political terrain.Whether in anywhere of Asia,Europe, or Africa, these ports centers consisted of ethically and culturally diverse communities. Many had officials that were of foreign birth or ancestry.Trained in being knowledgeable of the various cultures and languages of merchants that would work throughout the ports,which were also foreign.Deemed to be successful of the trade that occurred. Throughout many of the ports.

Yes,it is indisputable that,many a merchants have become a more powerful groups in local politics. Moreover, these ports promoted cultural exchange, along with economic exchange, since the ports are open to the world races,cultures and ideas to intermix with each other, blending with local and outsiders from diverse background for the acceptance of cultural difference.

Nation building and modernity reduced the role of trade through the sea and increased the reliance on trade through the land and the air,in economic and social exchange. Even though Singapore, Bangkok, and Hong Kong are still vibrant and available to the world. Similarly, similar to their modern counterparts, securing functions such as tourism, which is unrelated to foreign trade,only a few ports are as economically crucial today as they had been in the past.

A suggestion holds that,the continental trade over both the land and ocean maritime trade should not be seen as separate or competitive but rather as mirror images of one another.

This brought us,to the fact that,so many of the port cities were seems to be tamed in symbiosis with the caravan routes to and from their related hinterland interiors,and sometimes even with distance transcontinental regions. A claim that held true in central Asia given the above suggestion.Inland trade move by both the water,and overland itself, reminds me of the port cities in Nigeria. Port Harcourt, Lagos, calabar,etc and inland waterway in lokoja Kogi state,which ever readily available to transport goods throughout many parts of Nigeria. Blackened by blockage and largely remained in dredged nevertheless, it serves as a facility for transportation of goods to different consumptions in Nigeria like for example, shipping in smaller boats went along coast of India, but inland waterways were readily available to use to transport goods throughout many parts of India, especially in the South.

And in history, caravans that contained numbers from ten to forty thousand pack/drought animals moved overland at a time. Combinations of these forms of transportation carried throughout the subcontinent where therefore transshipped to and from long distance maritime trade. Air trans

AIR TRANSPORTATION

Humanity’s desire to fly likely dates to the first time man observed birds, an observation illustrated in the legendary stories of Daedalus and Icarus in Greek mythology and the vimanas in India mythology. So observation of birds in flight, aroused human desire to fly,Daedalus/Icarus and Vimanas in legendary stories curries.Harlotting in Charlotte charlotta with promiscuity of glowing sky.

Early researchers focus much on imitating birds,but through trials and errors, ballons,airships,gliders and eventually powered aircraft and other types of flying machines were invented,out of the house of commotion.Kites were the first form of man made flying objects,and early records suggest that kites were around before 200BC in china.Leonardo Da Vinci’s dream of flight found expression in several designs,but failed to attempt to demonstrate flight .Such expression smoothenes by literally contructing his designs. At the sunshine of 17th and 18th centuries, the time when scientists began analysing the earth’s atmosphere. Gasses such as hydrogen became discovered, thus leading to the invention of hydrogen balloons. It was at the time, that various theories in mechanics by physicist, prominent of which is fluid dynamic s and Newton’s law of motion create the foundation of modern aerodynamic

Tethered balloons filled with hot air were used in the first half of the 19th century and saw considerable action in several mid century wars, notably the American civil war, where balloons became use in observation during the siege of Petersburg.Apart from some scattered reference in ancient and medieval statistics, flimsy or resting on slender evidence and in need of interpretation.

Jean François pilatre de Rozier and François Laurent d’Arlandes,gave us the first clearly verifiable human flight, when in 1783 went on 5 miles (8.0 km) in a hot air balloon invented by the Montgolfier brother. Where in the wright brothers made the first sustained, controlled and powered heavier than air flight on December 17,1903, in their revolutionary aircraft, the wright flyer. The wright flyer

“In so many skies,comes the courage, and the bands of code conjugate,conjuring.Coming up with clean and clear flying machines the world

World war 2 saw a drastic increase in the pace of aircraft development and production. All the involving countries in the stepped up development and production of aircraft and flight based weapon delivery system, like the hotcake first long range bomber. A

At the end of the world war II,commercial aviation grew rapidly, using mostly ex military aircraft to transport people and cargo.This growth was entrusted to be by the glut of heavy and super heavy bomber airframes like the Lancaster that could be converted into commercial aircraft. And British De Havilland comets was the first.

TO BE CONT

TRANSPORTATION AND IT’S CONCERNS IN AFRICA.

See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270022286Transportation and its Concerns in Africa: A ReviewArticle · January 2011DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2011.51.63CITATIONS17READS2,4573 authors, including:Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:Knowledge-Based System for Low Volume Rural RoadsView projectRoad SafetyView projectRiza ATIQ RahmatUniversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia172PUBLICATIONS1,397CITATIONSSEE PROFILEAmiruddin Bin IsmailUniversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia240PUBLICATIONS1,826CITATIONSSEE PROFILEAll content following this page was uploaded by Amiruddin Bin Ismail on 20 July 2017.The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.

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